World War II marked a turning point for New Mexico art. The romance of nostalgic paintings— that had dominated New Mexico art for decades—seemed shallow and insignificant in the aftermath of the conflict. This led many New Mexico artists to investigate spiritual and psychological issues. During the Cold War, many New Mexico artists embraced abstraction and rejected realist imagery. At the same time, Native artists challenged the domination of abstract imagery by challenging the stereotypes of “Indian-ness” and by adopting expressionist brushstrokes and Pop Art styles.